Enzymes are used in different ways in industry.
The milk enzyme calf rennet has been used in the dairy industry for a long time. In recent years, calf rennet has been replaced by microbial rennet (e.g. Mucor michei).
They are acidic aspartic proteases. They differ slightly from veal rennet as they depend on Ca++, temperature, pH, etc. to react with casein.
Lactase (produced by Bacillus stearothermophilus) is used for hydrolysis of lactose in whey or milk and lipase for flavoring. Development in special cheeses.
In normal washing, protein soils tend to deposit on solid fabrics and proteins make it easier for soil to adhere to textile fibers and to cause stains on fabrics
. These stains are difficult to remove from clothing.
However, it can be easily removed by adding proteolytic enzymes to the detergent. It attacks peptide bonds and uses it to break down proteins. Alkaline serine protease obtained from B. licheniformis is most preferred for use in detergents. In addition, the serine protease from B.
Amyloliquefaciens is also used for this purpose. It contains a-amylase, so it may be beneficial to some extent.
It was mentioned above that starch hydrolysis started in the early 1950s to manufacture around 1960s Dextrose and Glucose Syrups Glucoamylase has also been combined with bacterial α-amylase for the complete acidic hydrolysis of starch to dextrose. Different enzymatic processes are currently applied to different products.
Glucose isomerase is an important enzyme used commercially in the conversion of glucose to fructose through isomerization. Fructose is used in the manufacture of fructose syrup.
The final reaction mixture contains 42% fructose, 52% glucose and 6xtrins. The mixture is sweeter than glucose and as sweet as sucrose. Techniques have now been developed to obtain a 55% concentration of fructose in syrup.
The enzymes used in the brewing industry are a-amylase, b-glucanase and protease, which are needed for malt instead of barley. The source of these enzymes is B. amyloliquefaciens. α-Amylase is not required for liquefaction or brewing additives and β-Glucanase alleviates filtration problems due to poor malt quality and Neutral Protease helps inhibit alkaline protease via an inhibitor.
Pectic enzymes are used in the
wine business for superior product yield of improved quality.
Pectin enzymes are Pectin Transeliminase (PTE), Polymethylgalacturonase (PMG), Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectinesterase (PE), etc. However, cellulose enzymes give a smart result when combined with different enzymes e.g. protease glucoamylase etc.